A world inspired by the success of the Beetle and Porsche │ Boxer engine history ⑤

This article isBoxer engine fades │ Flat 4 engine evolutionIt is a continuation of.

Immediately after the war, Europe, in a poor economy, needed a small displacement car again. Citroën created his own popular car, the 2CV. It has a really clever design but a poor 375cc air-cooled flat twin that was used as an engine in various Citroen cars during the 1960s.

French pioneer maker Panhard was a luxury car maker until then, but after the war concentrated on only lightweight, aerodynamic and economical small cars, initially a flat twin expanded to 610cc and later to 850cc Was installed. In the 1950s, Grasse, DAF, BMW and Steyr were producing cars with small flat twins. In 1957, Steyr Puff launched a car with its own flat twin on the body of the Fiat 500. It was an engine developed by the famous Tatra designer's son, Erich Redvinka, which initially produced 16ps from 493cc, but expanded to 660cc in 1964 and produced 60ps in racing specifications.

Poland's renowned laryist Sobieslav Zasada has been named the Group II champion of the 1966 European Rally Championship in Phufu [still the smallest displacement champion]. If you're doing it well, you can't miss the French advanced luxury car, the 1950's Ochiquis Gregoire, if you extend the range to "cars." Although it produced less than 250 units until it was discontinued in 1954, most of the chassis and running gear were made of aluminum, and were FWD vehicles with a 2180cc water-cooled flat 4. Citroen was also thinking about loading an air-cooled flat 6 for the innovative DS that made its debut in 1955, but in spite of being made into a prototype, it eventually has to use the inline 4-cylinder that follows Traxion Avant Didn't get

In the UK, AC Cars had been unsuccessful as it spent more than a hefty amount on developing prototype 4-cylinder and 6-cylinder horizontally opposed engines. They were designed by Polish aircraft engineer Zizlav Malchewiski.

Harry Ferguson, an Irish-born tractor giant, was working in the late 1950s to develop an advanced 4WD car featuring a 2.2-liter flat 4 engine with ABS [anti-lock brakes] and belt-driven SOHC. He died in 1960, but his company continued to develop and was completed in 1965 as R5. It didn't look pretty, but it was technically very advanced. Subaru also released the Leone equipped with the first 4WD boxer engine in 1971.

Preston Tucker was causing a sensation in the automobile industry in the United States. There was a problem with its own engine, which was planned to be installed in the futuristic Tucker 48 sedan of 1948, so it was replaced with a Franklin air-cooled flat 6 known for helicopters as a water-cooled type, but eventually 51 Only the stand was produced.

At the end of the 1950s, American automakers also began to think of smaller cars to compete with imported cars from Europe. The most ambitious compact model was the 1960 Chevrolet Corvere, America's first [and only] air-cooled rear engine car. An aluminum 6-cylinder engine was secretly remodeled on a Porsche 356 and was tested. In 1962, a 150ps spider specification with turbo added was also added.

Inspired by the success of the Beetle and Porsche, the Flat 4 configuration has been reinstated. Lancia announced the Flavia with a 1500cc water-cooled aluminum engine in 1960, and derivative models were produced until the mid-1980s. The advanced Citroen GS, which won the 1971 European Car of the Year, was equipped with the all-new 1015cc air-cooled 4-cylinder OHC Flat 4. Another great boxer will be born in the same year. It's Alpha Sud. Developed by Rudolf Hruska, a former Porsche engineer. Born in Vienna in 1915, Furshka joined the Porsche Design Office in 1938 and moved to Turin after the war, where he worked with Carlo Abarth and von Abelhorst on the Piero Duzio Chisitalia project. He also served as a contact with Porsche, who was based in Gmund.

After the failure of Duzio's Chisitalia project, Frusca worked for Alfa Romeo, Simca and Fiat, and in 1967 had the opportunity to develop the first Alfa Romeo front-wheel drive vehicle. Alfa Sud's 1186cc OHC boxer [later expanded to 1490cc] lived up to 7000rpm and had unprecedented handling, making it the most popular model of the "Hot Hatch" era.

At the end of the 1960s, Porsche had only six flat models [at least for the commercial model], but for business reasons it lent its name to the VW engine's 2 liter 914. In 1976, it sent out an entry model for the United States called 912E loaded with the same VW engine, but production was stopped within a year.

However, the original Beetle survived and became a living fossil. It was in 2003 that the last one rolled off the Mexican plant. Since then, only Subaru has inherited the tradition of a 4-cylinder boxer engine, but recently Porsche has once again returned to the world of Flat 4. Despite the pros and cons, the turbo engine 718 Cayman returned to the boxer world. It may be that there is "no new things under the sun."

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