How did Santa Claus survive the turbulence in the USSR?
Speaking of Santa Claus, the general image is "the grandfather in red clothes riding on a reindeer's sleigh", but in fact, customs and images differ according to the country. In Russia, dressed in blue and appears with granddaughterJed MallowsIs known as the Russian version of Santa Claus. In contrast to the peaceful image of Santa Claus, the turbulent history of Jed Maros, who has been at the mercy of violence and politics in the past 100 years, hasAtlas ObscuraIs approaching.
How Santa Survived the Soviet Era-Atlas Obscura
In the first place, although there are various patterns in Santa Claus, their origins existed in pre-Christian Christianity, the god of war and death in Nordic mythology "OdinIt is believed that there is. Odin beards, rides a flying horse, and celebrates the Winter SolsticeYurutide(Yule)Has been related to. When Christianity swept over Europe, Yule customs became Christmas customs, and Odin's image secretly gave a dowry to poor parish daughtersSt. NicholasIt is thought that Santa Claus was created by mixing with the image of.
by ergeev Pavel
Under the Russian emperor, Christmas was one of the major holidays, but it was not as important as Easter, and at that time it was not recognized as a "festival". The Russian Empire of the 18th century controlled many regions and was religiously diverse, but mostly Russian or Belarus, and many ChristiansEastern Orthodox ChurchBelonged to This will greatly affect the fate of Santa Claus in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.
Jed Mallows image is a 19th century playwrightAlexander OstrovskyIt is thought to be derived from "Yukimusume" written by. Ostrovsky is a political writer who depicts merchant society and corrupt aristocracy with his work, and the fairy tale snowmaid is one of his works.
The story features a Snow Maiden (Snegurochka) and his grandfather, Jed Malos. Malos is a snow nymph in old Russian mythology, but in Russia a harsh winter promises a harvest next year, and the snow nymph is not necessarily evil. However, in the Russian Empire at the time, the presence of Malos and other pagans did not attract attention until the play of Ostrovsky appeared.
Yukimusume became a popular opera, and Snegurochka and Malos gained interest from educated people. According to Vladimir Sorona, a historian at the University of Central Florida, the Snow Maiden has triggered the image of Santa Claus, trees and gifts for children in urban areas. The "Russian Santa Claus," a three-flying horse-drawn carriage, dressed in blue and white, holding magical tools, and giving gifts to children with his granddaughter Snegurochka, was completed.
The Eastern Orthodox Church did not admire the non-Christian Santa Claus, but did not persecute it. But then, in 1917Communist revolutionThe "obvious religious festival" was removed when there was a move to abolish organized religion and establish atheism in the Soviet Union. During this time, the church was destroyed, priests were executed, and the government was attacked with more scientific and anti-religious propaganda. In one of the propaganda, the presence or absence of a Christmas tree was monitored from the window of the home, and the home with the Christmas tree was involved in the "problem".
Such a movement aroused people's fears of "practicing religion" in urban areas. However, from around 1935, winter holidays were accepted again as "Novy God" (New Year) instead of Christmas, and by 1950 it was established as a winter event. For this reason, over the past 40 to 50 years, instead of Christmas, the "New Year's Tree" has been decorated, and Jed Marlos celebrating the New Year has appeared. At that time, Christianity was regarded as an enemy, but Marlos was recognized as a leader of the Soviet Union because it had a pre-Christian origin. MarlothSpace development competitionAt that time, he was sometimes depicted as a communist, hardworking, muscular figure, riding a spacecraft instead of a carriage.
And in 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed, and religious practices were once again recognized. However, the people had never celebrated Christmas with their ancestors, so they did not fit well. "The majority of people living in countries such as Russia, Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine recognize the New Year as a much more important holiday than Christmas," said Alexander Statiev, a historian at the University of Waterloo. We recognize that Christmas is not a religion, it is just a party day for people. "