New research results on physiological switches that separate morning rhythm and night rhythm of life rhythm will be announced
Some people in the world wake up with the morning sun and others don't sleep until midnight. Regarding the mechanism that there is a difference between morning type and night type while being the same animal,National Institutes of Health (NIH)US fundedUniversity of CaliforniaAnd of SingaporeDuke Singapore National University Medical SchoolThe research team has found new clues.
Casein kinase 1 dynamics underlie substrate selectivity and the PER2 circadian phosphoswitch.- PubMed-NCBI
Early Riser or Night Owl? New Study May Help to Explain the Difference – NIH Director's Blog
Found inside living cells and tissuesCircadian rhythm (Body clock)Is composed of complex interactions of many genes and proteins. For example,DNAThe cycle of protein synthesis based on this information forms a negative feedback loop that is suppressed in accordance with the amount of protein, creating a 24-hour cycle in living organisms.
In addition, protein alonePhosphorylationIt is also pointed out that there is a 24-hour cycle, and that various mechanisms are combined to form a circadian rhythm. In particular, genes that are deeply involved in the circadian rhythm of living thingsClock geneIs called.
It has been one of the clock genes for some timePeriod geneIt has been known that the circadian rhythm of living organisms is regulated by the rise and fall of the amount of Per protein produced in a 24-hour cycle. Also involved in circadian rhythmCasein kinase 1Of the enzyme groupCasein kinase 1 isoform epsilon (CK1ε)andCSNK1D (CK1δ)Is involved in the stability and degradation of Per protein, and plays an important role in generating circadian rhythms in living organisms.
Therefore, the research team constructed casein kinase 1 found in flies, hamsters, and humans to find clues to the question “ Why do some humans and organisms have shorter circadian rhythms than other individuals? '' Biochemical analysis was performed on the mutations in the protein.
The researchers found that some of the proteins that make up casein kinase 1 functioned as "switches" to maintain Per protein expression levels. If the proteins that make up casein kinase 1 are functioning properly, the Per protein will maintain adequate stability and produce an almost perfect 24-hour circadian rhythm. However, if this protein is not functioning properly, the degradation cycle of Per protein will be faster or shorter than 24 hours, and the circadian rhythm will be disrupted. It seems that the more abnormal this circadian rhythm is, the more morning and night-type humans will be created.
The abnormalities that occur in the interaction between the Per protein and casein kinase 1 areFamilial advanced sleep phase syndromeIs known to be associated with sleep disorders such as The findings suggest that preventing casein kinase 1 from degrading the Per protein faster than usual may help treat familial advanced sleep phase syndrome.
Also, what makes casein kinase 1 attractive to researchers is that almost the same casein kinase 1 found in humans and hamsters isgreen algaeIs also found in NIH pointed out that the fact that very primitive organisms also have casein kinase 1 makes sense given that life on Earth has evolved in the same 24-hour environment.