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Pointed out that “ small errors in the number of constituent atoms '' may cause differences in the performance of the same processor


hardware

Pointed out that “ small errors in the number of constituent atoms '' may cause differences in the performance of the same processor

by ColiN00B

Execute software instructions on a computerProcessorIs a very important piece of hardware in a computer configuration. However, regarding the performance of such a processor, "a slight difference in the number of atoms in the manufacturing process of the processor may cause variations in performance even with the same processor," says a software engineer expert.Derek JonesMr asserts.

The Shape of Code »Performance variation in 2,386‘ identical ’processors
http://shape-of-code.coding-guidelines.com/2020/01/05/performance-variation-in-2386-identical-processors/

"Every microprocessor is different due to random variations in the manufacturing process," Jones said, even if processors are sold as the same product,TransistorAnd the difference in the number of atoms that make up the connections between transistors.

According to Jones, if a product is made up of thousands to tens of thousands of atoms, little difference will appear even if the amount of atoms is slightly different. However, recent processors have become smaller and are the world's largest semiconductor manufacturers.TSMCIsStarted manufacturing processors with 5nm processIt is reported that it did. In this way, at the time of writing an article in which the processor has become smaller, the width of the connection between the transistors may be only a few tens of atoms. Therefore, a slight difference in the number of atoms may have a significant effect on performance.

by RemazteredStudio

As for the effect of the difference in the number of atoms on the processor, Jones points out that the thermal characteristics of the processor may change. In other words, slight variations in atoms may cause certain processors to heat up faster or slower than other processors.

Modern processors have been designed to protect themselves from overheating if the temperature rises too high,Operating frequencyAnd a safety mechanism that automatically lowers the voltage. Jones argues that differences in the thermal characteristics of the processor due to variations in the atoms cause differences in the performance exhibited even when the same processor is operated in the same environment.

In fact, Jones argues that "a great example of the same processor showing varying performance."IntelIs a processorSandy BridgeEditionXeonThis is the result of a benchmark test using 2386 pieces. The underlying data is a computer scientistBarry RountreeProvided by Mr., all processors performed benchmark tests under the same maximum power limit. It can be seen that there is variation in the time to complete the benchmark test and the operating frequency for the same processor.

Mr. Jones pointed out that the results of the benchmark test of Sandy Bridge version Xeon varied, possibly because the thermal characteristics and performance of other hardware devices connected to each processor were affected, not necessarily. The results are not always based on atomic differences. However, he says this is a good example of how thermal performance can affect benchmark test results for the same processor.

Intel began producing the Sandy Bridge microarchitecture in 2011, and in nearly eight years since then, the number of atoms used to construct transistors and connections between transistors has shrunk, says Jones. Pointed out. Jones argued that in today's processors, subtle differences in the number of atoms can cause a great deal of variation in processor performance.

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