Which of the JPEG / PNG / TIFF / HEIC image files is least susceptible to corruption?


Which of the JPEG / PNG / TIFF / HEIC image files is least susceptible to corruption?

Many people are now taking photos with smartphones, but when I want to keep photos for the future, I am wondering what to choose as a format for saving photos. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to deliberately destroy the photos in four formats, TIFF, PNG, JPEG, and HEIC, and to find out which photo had the highest restoration rate.

File Integrity 6: Which image format is most resilient? – The Eclectic Light Company

Media about macOS and paintingsThe Eclectic Light CompanyIs the founder of "and the developer of MacHoward OakleyIn the experiment, he destroyed the image using the original tool "Vandal" that destroys the image data. Vandal produces 1 to 8 bytes of change per image, so the image file used in the experiment was a relatively small 1 to 2 MB. Although it was a very small vandalism, the image was actually damaged and could be opened normally, but it was difficult if not impossible to repair.


When I tried to destroy the JPEG file, even if it was a small change of 2 bytes in 2 MB or 4 bytes in 4 MB, changes appeared in the image as "horizontal lines". The change in appearance became more pronounced as the number of bytes increased to 8 bytes and 16 bytes.

It was also confirmed that compressing JPEG files to 80-100% would increase the damage.

The lossy JPEG format is not so much damaged, while the lossless JPEG format is said to be one of the most damaged images tested.


"The slightest damage is very destructive to PNG images," says Oakley. When a small change of a few bytes is added to the image, the upper half of the image remains the same, but the lower half changes completely.

After adding a few bytes of destruction, the number of non-displayed parts of the image increased. "We don't recommend saving in PNG, where even a small amount of image destruction can occur," said Oakley.


The uncompressed TIFF has a large file size, so if it is destroyed in a few bytes, the image will not appear to be damaged at all. However, when compressed with 1: 2, part of it was painted black and the image became useless. It is recommended that TIFFs should not be compressed if they may be corrupted.


The HEIC format, which is the default for photos taken with an iPhone, turns out to be a unique little rectangle when the image is destroyed by a few bytes.

Smaller corruptions don't have much effect on the whole photo, but as the number of corrupted bytes increases, the number of rectangles increases and the photo becomes less meaningful. For this reason, HEIC is also not suitable when the image may be damaged.

By that, Oakley concludes that the most resilient image format is TIFF. However, since the image size becomes large, it is suitable for use as a "preliminary image" to prevent damage. Also, JPEG has a relatively small effect on the image due to damage, and if used with caution, it has resilience. A feature of JPEG is that it is easy to restore and retouch as needed. If the file size of the JPEG image is smaller than 10MBMacPAR deLuxeIf you use it to protect the ECC memory, the resilience will be even greater. And since HEIC is susceptible to damage, it is recommended to convert to JPEG and save.

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